Adverbial relative clauses

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Adverbial relative clauses

A relative clause, expressing time, manner, or place, can follow a noun governed by a preposition (on the day in the example below):

On the day that you eat from it, you will certainly die (NEB) It is possible for the relative clause to begin with the same preposition and which, e. g.

On the day on which this occurred, I was away But it is a perfectly acceptable idiom to use a relative clause introduced by that without repetition of the preposition, especially after the nouns day, morning, night, time, year, etc., manner, sense, way (see way, relative clause following), place, e. g.

Envy in the consuming sense that certain persons display the trait (Anthony Powell)

It is, if anything, even more usual for that to be omitted:

He cannot have been more than thirty at the time we met him (Evelyn Waugh)

If he would take it in the sense she meant it (L. P. Hartley)

On the day you pass over the Jordan (NEB)

B. Adverbs without -ly

Most adverbs consist of an adjective + the ending -ly, e. g. badly, differently. For the changes in spelling that the addition of -ly may require, see -ly.

Normally the use of the ordinary adjective as an adverb, without -ly, is non-standard, e. g.

I was sent for special.

The Americans speak different from us. They just put down their tools sudden and cut and run.

There are, however, a number of words which are both adjective and adverb and cannot add the adverbial ending -ly:

early fast much

enough little straight

far low

Some other adjectives can be used as adverbs both with and without -ly. The two forms have different meanings:

deep high near

hard late

The forms without -ly are the adverbs more closely similar in meaning to the adjectives, as

the following examples illustrate:

deep: Still waters run deep.

He read deep into the night.

hard: They hit me hard in the chest He lost his hard-earned money.

We will be hard put to it to be ready by Christmas.

high: It soared high above us.

Don’t fix your hopes too high.

late: I will stay up late to finish it.

A drawing dated as late as 1960.

near: He won’t come near me.

As near as makes no difference Near-famine conditions. The forms with -ly have meanings more remote from those of the adjectives:

deeply is chiefly figurative, e. g. Deeply in love

hardly = “scarcely”, e. g. He hardly earned his money

highly is chiefly figurative, e. g. Don’t value possessions too highly

lately = “recently”, e. g. I have been very tired lately

nearly = “almost”, e. g. The conditions were nearly those of a famine

° The forms with and without -ly are not interchangeable and should not be confused.